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6000 anni fa al Palù di Livenza: il Neolitico e l’età del Rame

The culture of Square Mouth Jars

The transition between the Neolithic and Copper Age is an important opportunity for economic and social change, because there was the discovery and spread of copper metallurgy between European and Italian prehistoric groups. The final phase of the Neolithic period, which can be attributed to the remains of the village of Palù di Livenza, is dated between 4300 and about 3800-3700 BC.

This stage is characterized by the final aspects of the culture of Square Mouth Jars, so called by the particular form of the vessels. This culture spread during the fifth millennium BC over most of the territories of northern Italy, forming one of the most important Neolithic cultural events of the Italian peninsula. It was divided into three phases, based on the differences recorded in the decoration of the vessels.

To the phase III should be reported several items of pottery and stone tools found among the materials collected at Palù.
Connections with the Balkan area are evident during the II phase in the type of decorative vases, in the presence of female figurines and pintaderas, a kind of clay stamps. The contacts with the transalpine countries are documented in the subsequent phase III, when relations with the Balkan world are broken. The western Friuli represents the easternmost limit reached by this culture in its last phase.
From 4,300 BC groups and cultural traditions of the Western type similar to those of Chassey of southern France, began to emerge in Liguria.
During the first centuries of the fourth millennium BC, began in western Lombardy the culture of Lagozza, thanks to the contribution of these influences. The culture of Lagozza marks the end of the Neolithic in northern Italy between 3700 and 3500 BC, when it was replaced by various cultural groups that led to the introduction of metallurgy.

6000annifa2BIn northern Italy, the knowledge about the end of the Neolithic and the beginning of the Copper Age are unfortunately not many. The Palù is a site of particular interest to understand the final stage of the Neolithic and the next step to the Copper Age.

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